Peripheral Arterial (Vascular) Disease (or PAD/PVD)

Peripheral Arterial (Vascular) Disease (or PAD/PVD), is a common condition where narrowed arteries in the leg or legs prevent regular blood flow. This usually causes pain and/or cramping in the muscles of the hip, thigh or calf when walking or exercising. The pain can go away when resting, but will return with exercise and movement.
If left untreated, the narrowed arteries prevent blood flow to the leg or legs, and can essentially “choke” the leg. This can cause the skin to change color, difficulty walking, ulcers and sores on the leg and foot, and lead to gangrene and possible amputation.

Venous insufficiency

Venous insufficiency occurs when the valves in the veins are not functioning properly (or insufficient), and the blood which should be going back to the heart pools in the legs. This can also be caused by compression of veins in the pelvis, which causes back-pressure. These conditions result in back-pressure in the veins, which causes spider veins, varicose veins, swelling, skin discoloration, and in more severe cases, ulceration.

Varicose veins

People mostly know varicose veins as the large, bumpy veins seen snaking down the leg. These enlarged veins are caused when the valves in the veins–that help move the blood from the feet back upward toward the heart—don’t work properly. This causes blood to pool in that area, causing the varicose veins to grow.
For many people, the only problem with varicose veins is cosmetic: they don’t like the way it looks.
For some, however, the varicose veins cause aching pain and discomfort, bruising, heavy and itchy legs, and swelling.

What causes varicose veins?

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Who gets varicose veins?

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What are the symptoms of varicose veins?

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What are the treatments for varicose veins?

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Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot which forms within the deep veins of the leg (AKA thrombus), which usually results from slow blood flow in the legs, and sometimes from blood clotting disorders. Slow flow is caused by sitting for long periods of time without movement or exercise, which is why people often get these on long airline flights or road trips. Common symptoms include:

  • Pain in the leg, foot or calf
  • Swelling in the leg
  • Tenderness
  • Warm skin

Vascular Malformation

“Vascular Malformation” is a general term that refers to a number of abnormalities resulting from abnormal development in blood vessels, veins and/or arteries. They often affect the proper function of the area by causing:

  • physical disfiguration
  • pain
  • swelling
  • bleeding
Vascular Malformation

Arterial Treatments


Atherectomy is a non-surgical procedure to remove the plaque and calcium deposits that sometimes block arteries.

Through a small incision, your physician places a catheter into the blocked artery. This catheter has a small device with a tiny, rotating blade or spinning crown which is advanced through the plaque in your artery.

The device is then activated, which removes the plaque off the artery wall. Once the procedure is complete, the artery flow is restored, without the need for invasive surgery.




Angiography is an X-ray exam of the arteries or veins to diagnose blockages and other blood vessel problems.

During the angiogram, an interventional specialist inserts a thin tube–known as a catheter–into the artery through a small incision in the skin (about the size of the tip of a pencil). A liquid called contrast (X-ray dye) is injected to make the blood vessels visible on the X-ray.

Vascular Condition


Angioplasty is a minimally-invasive vascular procedure that opens up blocked veins or arteries. Often associated with the coronary artery in the heart, angioplasty can be used throughout the body to open blood flow. For example, it is often used to restore blood flow in blocked leg arteries.

Vascular Condition

Stent placement

Interventional Radiologists restore blood flow to various arteries or organs using a stent. Stents are metal mesh structures that expand to open arteries. Stents are placed when X-Ray guidance helps identify the blocked artery. Once done, the metal stent is deployed, restoring flow.

A small incision is made in the skin through which a small wire is directed into the blocked artery. A deflated balloon is then passed over the initial wire, and when the deflated balloon gets to the blockage it is inflated. A metal structure called a stent is placed in the blockage to keep the artery walls open.

Once the stent is in place, the balloon is deflated and the catheter is removed.

Vascular Stent Placement

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